A Consistent switched-mode power supply (SMPS) is an electronic circuit that converts power utilising switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, as well as storage components like inductors or capacitors to provide power while the switching device is not conducting.
Switching power supplies have a high efficiency and are used in a wide range of electronic equipment, including computers and other sensitive equipment that requires a consistent and efficient power supply.
A switched-mode power supply is also known as a switching-mode power supply.
Switched-Mode Power Supply Explained by Techopedia (SMPS)
The kind of input and output voltages determines how switched-mode power sources are classed. The following are the four major categories:
- AC to DC
- DC to DC
- DC to AC
- AC to AC
A basic isolated AC to DC switched-mode power supply consists of:
- Filter and input rectifier
- Inverter consisting of switching devices such as MOSFETs
- Filter and output rectifier
- Circuit for feedback and control
Advantages of switched-mode power supplies:
- Higher efficiency of 68% to 90%
- Regulated and reliable outputs regardless of variations in input supply voltage
- Small size and lighter
- Flexible technology
- High power density
The circuit configuration, referred to as topology determines how the power is transferred from the input to the output.
A power transformer provides voltage scaling based on the turns ratio, numerous outputs dependent on the number of windings, and isolation in most topologies. Because buck and boost topologies do not employ a transformer, they are not isolated. Their energy conversion is solely based on inductive energy transfer.
Non-isolated topologies are often employed in dc-dc regulators and have a restricted application. They normally produce a single output, which is restricted by the duty cycle and input voltage.
The choice of the topology to use is influenced by cost, efficiency, size and other requirements.
- Buck – This is the most common, simplest, and cheapest for non- isolated topology as the DC to DC voltage step-down applications
- Boost – step-up non isolated
- Buck and boost , step up and down, non isolated
- Flyback – isolated step-up and step down
- Forward isolated buck step down
- Push-Pull forward converter with two primary windings
- Half bridge
- Full bridge
Switch mode power supply terminology
The switch mode power supply, or SMPS, technology is known by a variety of terms. While they are all looking at the same underlying technology, they are referring to various aspects of it:
Switch mode power supply, SMPS
The phrase switch mode power supply refers to a device that can be connected to the mains or another external power source and utilised to create source power. To put it another way, it’s a comprehensive power supply.
Switch mode regulator
This usually refers to the electronic circuit that regulates the voltage. The total switch mode power supply will include a switch mode regulator.
Switch mode regulator controller
The series switching element is absent from many switch mode regulator integrated circuits. If the current or voltage levels are high, an external series switching element will be able to handle the greater current and voltage levels, as well as the resulting power dissipation, better.
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